Why Cetaceans Should Not be in Captivity

Why Cetaceans Should Not be in Captivity
 
Here are a list of important links to understand why cetaceans should not be in captivity
 
ORCAS 
Humane Society International (HSI) & Humane Society of the United States (HSUS)
"Killer Controversy Why orcas should no longer be kept in captivity" by Dr Naomi Rose 2010

This presents clear, scientific evidence as to why Killer Whales (Orcas) should not be in captivity.  In side boxes on pages 6-8 are documented statements from SeaWorld about orcas in captivity, these self-serving responses have to be read to be believed, and clearly do not show SeaWorld as credible educational source.  Remember, SeaWorld's official name is SeaWorld Entertainment Inc., they are not about education, only entertainment with Marine Life Shows, rides, merchandise etc. 

 
COMPARISON OF ORCA IN WILD
and

Habitat
- WILD
Killer whales live in aquatic marine habitats. They are found in all oceans of the world. Normally preferring depths of 20 to 60 m, killer whales also visit shallow waters along coastlines or dive to 300 m in search of food. Killer whales generally occupy the same home range year round.
- CAPTIVE
No comparison

Breeding
- WILD
Killer whales can reproduce whenever females enter estrus, which can occur multiple times a year. However, most breeding happens in the summer, and killer whales are typically born in the fall. Females reach sexual maturity between 6 and 10 years of age. Males reach sexual maturity between 10 and 13 years old. Female killer whales begin to mate between 14 and 15 years of age. The youngest female whale on record to give birth was 11 years old. Females have a calf every 6 to 10 years and they stop breeding around the age of 40. The result is 4 to 6 offspring over a 25 year span
- CAPTIVE

Artificial Insemination's at 6, most breeding before the age of 10. Most females pregnant straight after giving birth. 4 - 6 calves over 10 years if they live that long.

Lifespan

- WILD
 Mortality rates are said to be the lowest around 12 to 13 years in males and 20 years in females. The average lifespan for a female in the wild is around 63 years, with a maximum of 80 to 90 years. Male life expectancy is a bit shorter, with the average lifespan being around 36 years, with a maximum of 50 to 60 years.
- CAPTIVE

Most don't make it to 10 years old. None have made it to 63.

Behavior

- WILD
 Killer whales have limited dispersal from the maternal pod and young whales are always part of their mother's pod. Individuals in pods swim within 100 meters of each other and coordinate their activities. They may share prey and rarely leave the pod for more than a few hours. Killer whales teach pod members through apprenticeship. Skill in hunting and parenting are among the skills taught to younger whales. Young females stay in their mothers pod for life.
- CAPTIVE
Babies taken within 3 years, some are lucky and get a whole 5 years with their mothers.

Communication 

- WILD
 There are 3 categories of vocalizations used by killer whales: whistles, discrete calls, and clicks. Vocalizations are used both for communication and navigation. They use discrete calls and whistles when communicating within and among pods. Each pod has their a discrete dialect that sounds slightly different from that of other pods. This dialect has been shown to stay the same in a pod for up to six generations. Clicks seem to be used only for echolocation. Killer whales do have good vision, but in dark water their vision is not helpful in catching prey or navigating. As in other toothed whales, killer whales use sonar to perceive their aquatic environment.

The whale's ears are very small openings behind the eyes, which have no outer flap. The killer whale hears the whistles and clicks through an auditory bulla (earbone complex) in its lower jaw. The sound waves enter through the jaw where they then enter into the earbone complex. In this auditory bulla, there are bones that are like the bones found in the human ear. They waves travel trough these bones, then enter into the brain via an auditory nerve.
- CAPTIVE
Can't 'speak' to each other as the pods are false and dialects different. Can't use echolocation as it bounces back at them from the tank walls. Can't use sonar to perceive their aquatic environment as they don't have one. As in Morgan in the wild it would make no difference if she was deaf as she could still locate food and other pod members with her other skills.

Food

- WILD
 Killer wh
ales are exceptionally successful predators. Orcinus orca diet is difficult to study and is most frequently assessed through looking at stomach contents. They eat a wide variety of large prey including: seals, sea lions, smaller whales and dolphins, fish, sharks, squid, octopi, sea turtles, sea birds, sea otters, river otters, and other animals. Killer whales eat on average 45 kg of food a day, but they can eat much more than that. They swallow small prey whole, but tend to tear up larger prey before consumption. Killer whales are social hunters, as are wolves and lions. They often hunt in packs and use coordinated social behavior and communication to hunt prey larger than themselves, such as larger whales.
- CAPTIVE
Frozen dead fish from a bucket.

Predation:

- WILD
 Killer whales have no natural predators, although young killer whales may be attacked by other killer whales or large sharks. They are at the top of the marine food chain. Humans sometimes prey on killer whales, but not in great numbers.
- CAPTIVE
The strange orca's they are forced to share a tank with are their only attackers other than man.

CAPTIVITY KILLS ORCA IN THE TANKS AND THE WILD. WHOLE GENERATIONS OF ORCA WERE CAPTURED DISRUPTING THE BREEDING PROCESS. THE SOUTHERN RESIDENTS ARE NOW ENDANGERED DUE TO CAPTURING OR KILLING A WHOLE BREEDING GENERATION.

DON'T BUY A TICKET. If your favourite marine park doesn't tell you the information above they are lying. Test it and ask them then DON'T BUY A TICKET.
 
 

 


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