Saturday 13 September 2014

Awesome Ocean misleads again - these are NOT facts!

Let’s get some facts straight: Captive Orca Research DOES help wild populations!

 To say that keeping captive marine mammals contributes little or no information/research that will aid animals in the wild is simply untrue.
Here are a few examples of how captive Orcas have helped in the aid of rescued or injured wild orcas as well as some hard scientific evidence we have learned from the animals in captivity. Its time to get some facts straight about how much captive orca research helps wild populations!

Once again these are NOT facts as all the evidence is not presented, you only show those which further your agenda, so once again I have corrected the bits that are wrong and added in links so those reading can go and check the information themselves. This sort of reporting is not fair to those who are wanting facts and is only of value to those who follow you blindly.

Situation #1: 1994 Barnes Lake Alaska Orca Rescue
David E. Bain of the Marine World Foundation discovered a pod of killer whales, as well as a deceased beached whale, inside of the Barnes Lake after a high tide allowed them to enter the waters. Due to the amount of fresh water in the lake as well as the low amount of food it became necessary to rescue these animals and release them back into the ocean before any more of them deceased.
On October 5th, 1994, David was joined by Jim Antrim and Bill Winhall, experts in Orca behavior, nutrition, health, and handling. Both Jim and Bill acquired their knowledge over many years working directly with Orcas at various SeaWorld parks as well as research conducted at SeaWorld by HUBBS research institute.
The group of experts worked together to identify the animals and decide the best possible way to assist them in returning to the wild. unfortunately two days later another whale died. It was clear they needed to act fast.
Jim and Bill were able to monitor and asses vocal calls, based on the knowledge and research conducted at SeaWorld by HUBBS Research Institute through various studies on Orca Vocalizations and social structure.
Their assessment was as follows:
I interpreted the observations as follows. The whales showed subtle signs of being in poor condition. The population density
was far in excess of what was sustainable. The lake was not part of normal killer whale habitat. The orcas were unlikely to leave the lake on their own, even if their physical condition deteriorated. In the absence of subsequent observations to the contrary, it likely would be in the interest of the whales to be relocated to open water. Given that one whale had died and that
the condition of the others was likely to deteriorate rather than improve, intervention as soon as possible was likely to be more helpful than waiting for obvious signs of distress. With this interpretation in hand, my authority under the NMML permit was rescinded, and control of the situation was placed clearly in the hands of the Alaska Region's stranding coordinator, Linda Shaw."
It was at this point that Linda with the help of SeaWorlds Rescue team, staff from Marine World, and various other animal welfare organization took the information and decided on the best route to save the animals.
Without SeaWorld's financial contribution as well as its experts on site utilizing the knowledge they gained from studying captive orcas, the successful rescue of an entire pod would not have been successful.

The link you provided above says none of this, it does say Jim Antrim and Bill Winhall went out but you omitted everything from the acknowledgement section which lists every agencies involvement and Seaworld's was only financial. 
It says: 
I would like to thank Russ Cameron and Peregrine Productions for organizing the logistics for this work, his assistance with data collection, and financial support. Louisiana Pacific, Ketchikan Air, The Marine World Foundation and Sea World provided financial support. I would like to give special thanks to Nani Fannemel and Geno Namaau of Whales Resort for providing logistical support to the field team. Gene Hering, Victor Ives, and Mike McKenzie also provided assistance in the field. I would like to thank many people from NMFS (both in Seattle and Juneau) and the U.S. Forest Service for helpful information and advice. I would like to give special thanks to Laurie Gage of Marine World for her advice and assistance with coordinating the intervention. I also give special thanks to Mike Demetrios of Marine World / Africa USA for encouraging me and Dr. Gage to participate, his behind the scenes work on logistics, and his usual advice to "do what's best for the whales." Mike Farley played a key role in organizing local responses from Whale Pass and Coffman Cove. I thank him and the people of those communities for their excellent work. The California Marine Mammal Center provided the poles used in the drive and staff support. Finally, I would like to thank NMFS for responding promptly to all requests for permission to take actions to benefit the welfare of the killer whales in Barnes Lake.

There is no mention of Seaworld helping in the field at all.

Situation #2: Springer - Puget Sound Rescue 2002
In July of 2002 a Orca calf of two years was captured into a sea pen, rehabilitated, and released back to its pod with the financial assistance of SeaWorld, as well as the knowledge of Orca Veterinary expert Jim McBain, Vice-President of Veterinary services for SeaWorld Entertainment.
Because of Jim's expertise in Orca behavior, dietary requirements, health, and behavior, a team was able to assist in Springers capture, rehabilitation, and release back into her pod safely. Her health was brought back within a month of diet and medical attention that would have been impossible without the scientific research conducted by SeaWorld and HUBBS Research Institute on killer whale digestion, nutritional requirements, and medical needs.
This is so untrue and un researched I am suprised it has even been written. 
Seaworlds input on Springer -  SeaWorld wanted to see Springer taken captive. “The SeaWorld vet tried his best to find something wrong with Springer that would dictate that she be moved to a SeaWorld tank,”  SeaWorld veterinarian Jim McBain told The Seattle Times that, "We're still worried about the next step. Her condition is a concern. This is not a robust killer whale.” “She won’t survive out there. She needs to live in captivity.”
 Several aquariums – including SeaWorld – lobbied to have her brought into captivity, but fortunately an environmental group located legal documents  containing a 1976 agreement between SeaWorld and Washington State (a result of the Penn Cove fiasco), proving that SeaWorld is barred from participating in any capture of any orca in Washington waters. Full report here

Situation #3: Morgan - Rescued in Harderwijk 2010 
An Orca calf was rescued in 2010 and sent to a small dolphinarium in Harderwijk, Netherlands.
The animal was deemed unreleasable due to its young age, and lack of knowledge as to which pod it could have belonged to. After careful consideration into the wellbeing of the animal, the court ruled that death was inevitable if released into the ocean and it had the best chance at a long and healthy life by being transported to the care of Loro Parque which has orcas under the watch of SeaWorlds Veterinary and animal care experts. Here it would have the opportunity to socialize with other killer whales and assist scientists with learning even more about wild orcas.They are NOT under the watch of Seaworld Veterinary and animal care experts, they ARE Seaworld's orcas, listed on their animal inventory.
As you can see here Morgan's pod HAS been located, there is no explaination as to why Seaworld are monitoring Morgans cycling and leaving her in with Keto in an attempt to get her pregnant, she is only 6 years old.
The doctors report shows her cycling is being monitored, her teeth are worn with 3 showing the pulp, she has scarring from rakes and bites from other orcas, and what is being done - nothing.
There is also still no explanation from Seaworld as to how Morgan has come to be listed on their animal inventory. The court said she was to go to Loro Parque to be in the company of other orcas, it DID NOT say Seaworld owned her, so how has that happened?
After the unfortunate end to Keiko's life, it was clear that the release of these animals into the wild is a clear death sentence and the potential for a long and healthy life under the expert staff at SeaWorld/Loro Parque was the best option for Morgan.
Keiko moved out of the Mexican tank in 1996, after 17 years of being in it. He was not considered the best candidate for release but Seaworld vet Larry Cornell (author of some of the research listed below) oversaw his care. After some rehabilitation and being taught to catch fish again he returned to Iceland in 1999. He was in Icelandic waters for 5 years, coming and going as he pleased, with supervision until the time he left of his own accord and swam across the ocean. His story and timeline is here. He died of pneumonia in 2003, ironically the condition which killed him is the one that kills most of the captive orcas too, so the ocean wasn't the problem there or why would those still in tanks die from the same thing.
Below is a list of research publications on Orca Behavior, health, and welfare that would not have been possible without the help of scientists and research conducted on captive orcas. What we are learning from these animals is helping facilities all over the world assist and rehabilitate animal populations in the wild with the information they have accumulated:

 I used Seaworlds own list from their website and had previously researched all of those too, the results are here  
I did intitially start to go through the list below, but get the impression that you have not read any of them, as if I was promoting Seaworld as actively as you do I would have put in some explainations for those reading especially to things like how doe AI help those in the wild, how does so many reports on live capturing help those in the wild etc. I read and answered those in full on the link above, so rather than continue going through the same list again, you can just see what they are all about here.
  1. Asper, E. D. and Cornell, L.H.: Live capture statistics for the killer whale (Orcinus orca) 1961-1976 in California, Washington and British Columbia. Aquatic Mammals. 1977;5(1):21-26 How does that help the wild population? 
  2. Asper, E. D., Young, W.G., and Walsh, M.T.: Observations on the birth and development of a captive-born killer whale (Orcinus orca). International Zoo Yearbook. 1988;27:295-304.
  4. Awbrey, F.T., Thomas, J.A., Evans, W.E., Leatherwood, S.: Ross Sea killer whale vocalizations: preliminary description and comparison with those of some Northern Hemisphere killer whales. SC/Jn81/KW7. 32nd Report International Whaling Commission. 1982;32:667-670.This was done alongside captures when Seaworld were looking for other areas of capture, so how does that help?
  5. Begeman, L., St. Leger, J.A., Blyde, D.J., Jauniaux, T.P., Lair, S., Lovewell, G., Raverty S., Seibel H., Siebert U., Staggs, S.L., Martelli P. and Keesler, R.I. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans. Veterinary Pathology. 2012; 50(4): 590-596. 9 captive and 9 wild orca have died from this. Sumar being one of them, hence the investigation after he died, not because the wild population died. How did this help?

  6. Benirschke, K., and Cornell, L.H.: The placenta of the killer whale, Orcinus orca. Marine Mammal Science. 1987; 3(1):82-86.
  7. Bowles, A.E., Young, W.G.., and Asper, E.D.: Ontogeny of stereotyped calling of a killer whale calf (Orcinus orca) during her first year. Rit Fiskideildar 1988;11:251-275.This was how to identify a calf in a pod also done alongisde the capture research. How did that help them in the wild it just saved them chasing the wrong pods as they wanted calves.?
  8. Buck, C., Paulino, G.P., Medina, D.J., Hsiung, G.D., Campbell, T.W., and Walsh, M.T.: Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus from a killer whale. Clinical Diagnostic Virology. 1993; 1:109-112. No wild orca has died of this it is a disease unique to captive orcas as they log at the surface and mosquitos can access them transmitting the virus that killed them. How then does this help those in the wild?
  9. Clark, S.T., and Odell, D.K.: Allometric relationships and sexual dimorphism in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Journal of Mammalogy. 1999;80(3):777-785.Changes in growth between males and females, which can also be studied in the wild, so how does this help the wild population?
  10. Clark, S.T., and Odell, D.K.: Nursing parameters in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Zoo Biology. 1999;18:5:373-384.
  11. Clark, S.T., Odell, D.K., and Lacinak, C.T.: Aspects of growth in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Marine Mammal Science. 2000; 16(1):110-123. In captive killer whales who are given measured out rations of food each day so how does this help those in the wild?
  12. Colegrove, K.M., St. Leger, J.A., Raverty, S., Jang, S., Berman-Kowalewski, M., and Gaydos, J.K.: Salmonella newport omphaloarteritis in a stranded killer whale (Orcinus orca) neonate. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2010; 46(4):1300-1304.
  13. Cornell, L.H: Hematology and clinical chemistry values in the killer whale, Orcinus orca. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 1983;19(3):259-264.
  14. Dahlheim, M.E., Leatherwood, S., and Perrin, W.F.: Distribution of killer whales in the warm temperate and tropical Eastern Pacific. SC/Jn81/KW3. 32nd Report International Whaling Commission. 1982;32:647-653. As you can see from the date, this was also done to find a new hunting ground to capture whales, so how does this help those in the wild?
  15. Duffield, D.A.: Orcinus orca: taxonomy, evolution, cytogenetics and population structure. Behavioral Biology of Killer Whales. 1986;19-33. You were made aware of the structure of killer whale populations and had all the information you needed yet chose to ignore as your shows were more important than the whales themselves which were replaceabl. How does this help the wild population when this was already known but you failed to apply it? 
  16. Duffield, D.A., and Miller, K.W.: Demographic features of killer whales in oceanaria in the United States and Canada, 1965-1987. Rit Fiskideilder. 1988;11:297-306.Despite the big title, Demographic features are studies of how the orca relate, age, sex, what they do etc. How does how they relate in a tank help those in the wild?
  17. Duffield, D.A., Odell, D.K., McBain, J.F., and Andrews, B.: Killer whale (Orcinus orca) reproduction at Sea World. Zoo Biology. 1995;14:417-430. Captive reproduction, cycling etc. How does this help those in the wild?
  18. Evans, W.E., Yablokov, A.V., and Bowles, A.E.: Geographic variation in the color pattern of killer whales (Orcinus orca). SC/Jn81/KW11. 32nd Report International Whaling Commission. 1982;32:687-694. This is how to identify the different types of orca which can also be done in the wild and has been done more extensively in the wild, so how does this help them?
  19. Funke, C., King, D.P., McBain, J.F., Adelung, D., and Stott, J.L.: Expression and functional characterization of killer whale (Orcinus orca) interleukin-6 (IL-6) and development of a competitive immunoassay. Vet Immunology and Immunopathology. 2003; 93(1-2):69-79.Animal testing to help animals?? How does that help then?
  20. Goldsberry, D. G., Asper, E.D., and Cornell, L.H.: Live capture technique for the killer whale (Orcinus orca). Aquatic Mammals. 1978;6(3):91-95. How does that help?
  21. Griner, L.A.: Cardiac candidiasis in a captive killer whale. Verh. ber. Erkrg. Zootiere. 1992: 34: 159-161.This report shows that this is so common in captive killers whales it has to be aggressively treated. How does this help those in the wild? 
  22. Hall, J.D., Rainer, M., Reed, G., and Roberts, J.: Increasing flexibility in photographic techniques for identifying killer whales. Cetology. 1987; 53:1-7.
  23. Hall, J.D. and Cornell, L.H.: Killer whales, (Orcinus orca) of Prince William Sound, Alaska results of 1985 field research. SC38/SM2. Presented to the Scientific Committee, International Whaling Commission. 1986.
  24. Hoffman, L., Knofczynski, G, and Clark, S.: Estimation of parameters in the joinpoint two-regime regression model. Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation. 2010; 39(8): 1562-1576.
  25. Jehl, Jr., J.R., Evans, W.E., Awbrey, F.T., and Drieschmann, W.S.: Distribution and geographic variation in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations of the Antarctic and adjacent waters. Antarctic Journal. U.S. 1980; 15:161-163.
  26. Kastelein, R.A.,Walton, S., Odell, D., Nieuwstraten, S.H., and Wiepkema, P.R.: Food consumption of a captive female killer whale (Orcinus orca). Aquatic Mammals. 2000; 26(2):127-131.Seaworld website says this isn't actually finished so has not been reviewed''Follow-up research with SeaWorld’s killer whales will look at metabolism in two ways. First, we will repeat this study with additional whales to add data on resting metabolism.  Next, we will look at how changes in activity patterns change food demands.   This will allow scientists to understand how foraging for food might increase the caloric needs of wild whales.''
  27. LaMere, S.A., St. Leger, J.A., Schrenzel, M.D., Anthony, S.J., Rideout, B.A., and Salomon, D.R.: Molecular characterization of a novel gammaretrovirus in killer whales (Orcinus orca). Journal of Virology. 2009;83(24):12956-12967.
  28. Leatherwood, S., Matkin, C.O., Hall, J.D. and Ellis, G.M.: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) photo-identified in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1976 through 1987. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 1990; 104(3):362-371
  29. Leatherwood, S., Balcomb, K.C., Matkin, C.O., and Ellis, G.: Killer whales, (Orcinus orca) of Southern Alaska. Results of field research 1984 preliminary report. Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute Technical Report. 1984; No. 84-175:1-59.
  30. Leatherwood, S., Bowles, A.E., Krygier, E., Hall, J.D., and Ignell, S.: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, and Shelikof Strait; a review of available information. SC/35/SM 7. 34th Report International Whaling Commission. 1984;34:521-530.
  31. Lyrholm, T., Leatherwood, S., and Sigurjónsson, J.: Photoidentification of killer whales (Orcinus orca) off Iceland, October 1985. Cetology. 1987; 52:1-13.
  32. Miller, D.L., Styer, E.L., Decker S.J., and Robeck, T.: Ultrastructure of the spermatozoa from three odontocetes, a killer whale (Orcinus orca), a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) and a beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 2002;31:158-168.
  33. Moore, S.E., Francine, J.K, Bowles, A.E., and Ford, J.K.B.: Analysis of calls of killer whales (Orcinus orca) from Iceland and Norway. Rit Fiskideildar. 1988;11:225-250.
  34. Myrick, A.C., Yochem, P.K., and Cornell, L.H.: Toward calibrating dentinal layers in captive killer whales by use of tetracycline labels. Rit Fiskideildar. 1988;11:285-296.
  35. Patterson, W. R., Dalton, L.M., McGlasson, D.L., and Cissik, J.H.: Aggregation of killer whale platelets. Thrombosis Research. 1993;70:225-231.
  36. Patterson, W. R., Dalton, L.M., and McGlasson, D.L.: A comparison of human and killer whale platelet fatty acid composition. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 1998;120(2):247-252.
  37. Robeck, T. R. and Dalton, L.M.: Saksenaea vasiformis and apophysomyces elegans zygomycotic infections in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a killer whale (Orcinus orca), and Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2002;33(4):356-366.
  38. Robeck, T.R., Gearhart, S.A., Steinman, K.J., Katsumata, E., Loureiro, J.D., O’Brien, J.K.: In vitro sperm characterization and development of a sperm cryopreservation method using directional solidification in the killer whale (Orcinus orca). Theriogenology. 2011;76:267-279.
  39. Robeck, T.R., and Monfort, S.L.: Characterization of male killer whale (Orcinus orca) sexual maturation and reproductive seasonality. Theriogenology. 2006; 66(2):242-250.
  40. Robeck, T. R., and Nollens, H.: Hematological and serum biochemical analytes reflect physiological challenges during gestation and lactation in killer whales (Orcinus orca). Zoo Biology. 2013;32(5):497-509.
  41. Robeck, T. R., Schneyer, A.L., McBain, J.F., Dalton, L.M., Walsh, M.T., Czekala, N.M., and Kraemer, D.C.: Analysis of urinary immunoreactive steroid metabolites and gonadotropins for characterization of the estrous cycle, breeding period, and seasonal estrous activity of captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Zoo Biology. 1993;12:173-187.
  42. Robeck, T.R., Steinman, K.J., Gearhart, S., Reidarson, T.R., McBain, J.F. and Monfort, S.L.,: Reproductive physiology and development of artificial insemination technology in killer whales (Orcinus orca). Biology of Reproduction. 2004;71: 650-660.
  43. Sigurjónsson, J., and Leatherwood, S.: The Icelandic live-capture fishery for killer whales, 1976 – 1988. Rit Fiskideilder. 1988;11:307-316.
  44. Sigurjónsson. J , Lyrholm, J., Leatherwood, S., Jónsson, E., and Víkingsson, G.: Photoidentification of killer whales, (Orcinus orca) off Iceland, 1981 through 1986. Rit Fiskideildar. 1988;11:99-114.
  45. Stevens, T. A., Duffield, D.A., Asper, E.D., Hewlett, K.G., Bolz, A., Gage, L.J., and Bossart, G.D.: Preliminary findings of restriction fragment differences in mitochondrial DNA among killer whales (Orcinus orca). Canadian Journal Zoology. 1989;67:2592-2595.
  46. St. Leger, J., Wu, G., Anderson, M., Dalton, L., Nilson, E., Wang, D.: West Nile Virus infection in killer whale, Texas, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2011;17(8):1531-1533.
  47. St. Leger, J.A., Begeman, L., Fleetwood, M., Frasca Jr., S., Garner, M.M., Lair, S., Trembley, S., Linn, M.J., and Terio, K.A..: Comparative pathology of nocardiosis in marine mammals. Veterinary Pathology. 2009;46:299-308.
  48. Walker, L. A., Cornell, L., Dahl, K.D., Czekala, N.M., Dargen, C.M., Joseph, B., Hsueh, A. J. and Lasley, B.L.: Urinary concentrations of ovarian steroid hormone metabolites and bioactive FSH in killer whales (Orcinus orca) during ovarian cycles and pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction. 1988;39(5):1013-1020.
  49. Williams, R., Krkosek, M., Ashe, E., Branch, T.A., Clark, S., Hammond, P.S., Hoyt E., Noren, D.P., Rosen, D., and Winship, A.: Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon. 2011. PLoS ONE 6(11): e26738.

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